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OAK ISLAND

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    OAK ISLAND
    By Linus Joseph Dewald Jr.
    28 December 2015
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    Table of Contents

      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. A SHORT GENERAL BACKGROUND
      3. TRANSLATION OF THE STONE'S CHARACTERS
      4. PLACEMENT OF THE STONE TABLET
      5. THE HORIZONTAL TUNNEL
      6. THE 5 FINGERED "VENT OPENINGS" AT SMITH'S COVE
      7. CONCLUSIONS

      1. INTRODUCTION

      This is a follow-up to earlier email correspondence with Rick Lagina in which he expressed interest in receiving the information I have developed over the years about the Oak Island quest. It begins with this Introduction. Much of the material in the introduction is already known to you. I will not dwell on it, but small portions of the history are included in my material for purposes of perspective.

      Neither will I be discussing the various theories about what lies below (pirate's treasure, Shakespeare's manuscripts, etc.) because at this point they are wishful thinking, unsupported by any hard, specific evidence.

      Although popularly called the "Money Pit," I will try to avoid using that term because I believe it to be a term which is misleading and diverts one from critically thinking about other possibilities.

      Some sources and diagrams are linked to other pages. After clicking on the links, either use your computer's "back" arrow to return to these pages, or if that does not work, just click on the email button.

      As to my sources:

      1. Much of the introductory material is from "The Money Pit: The Story of Oak Island and the World's Greatest Treasure Hunt" by D'Arcy O'Connor, January 1978. A copy is available from Amazon at Amazon.com . For convenience, my references to "The Money Pit" will be TMP followed by the page numbers, ie: TMP-20-24.

      2. Additional material in the text, particularly that dealing with the stone tablet found in the vertical shaft, is from "Saga America" by Dr. Barry Fell, 1980, Times Books. A copy is available from Amazon at Amazon.com . For convenience, my references to "Saga America" will be SA followed by the page numbers, ie: SA-20-24.

        I might mention that I knew Dr. Fell and had the pleasure of working with him on some of his epigraphic transcriptions.

      2. A SHORT GENERAL BACKGROUND

      Briefly, about 1795, some boys discovered on Oak Island what appeared to be pit which had been excavated and then refilled. It has been said that above it appeared to be a pulley which apparently had been used in conjunction with construction of the pit. Over the next few years, the pit was excavated to a depth of 90 feet, with oak tiers found every 10 feet, with layers of charcoal, putty and a fibrous material that covered some of the wooden tiers. At the time they did not know that the fiber was from the husks of coconuts, nor did they know that there was more of it on the island's shore. (TMP-22)

      Just before hitting the 90 foot oak platform layer, they found a large flat stone, 2-3 feet long, 15 inches wide, and 10-12 inches thick.

      The stone was removed in 1866 by A. O. Creighton, a partner in a Halifax bookbinding firm and a partner in one of the pit search groups. It was displayed in his shop to attract prospective investors in the Oak Island project. The stone and its symbols were seen by a great many people over the years. (TMP-24)

      At some date before 1909 an unnamed elderly schoolteacher from the town of Mahone Bay, about 6 miles from Oak Island, had copied down the characters and wrote a brief history of the Oak Island search. Her history was unclear as to whether she had personally seen the in characters.

      In 1909 Capt. Henry L. Bowdoin of NY, the leader of an Oak Island search syndicate, examined the stone in Halifax but said the characters were worn away. The reason was that the stone had been used by the Creighton bookbinders as a base on which to beat leather during the previous two decades. The stone was last seen in 1919 and its present location is unknown.

      Did the schoolteacher actually see the characters? Probably not, but was more likely copying some other person's earlier copy of the characters. O'Connor writes on pg. 25 as follows:

        "On December 19, 1933, Frederick Blair of Amherst, Nova Scotia wrote Thomas M. Nixon, a prospective searcher, advising him that: 'The last authentic word I had of this stone was from Jefferson McDonald, who told me in 1894 that some 30 years before [about 1864] that he helped to take down a partition of the rear of a fireplace in which the stone was used as a back, with the cut characters at the rear. The partition was for the purpose of examining and reading, if possible, the characters.characters

        The teacher sent his Oak Island manuscript to Rev. A T. Kempton of Cambridge, MA, who planned to use it in a book he was writing about Nova Scotia. Kempton never finished his book, but almost 40 years later he showed the Libyan Arabic script in Arabic language to Edward Rowee Snow who used it in his book, "Mysteries and Adventures Along the Atlantic Coast" (1948). (TMP-24) O'Connor's book, at pg. 24, mentions that "The symbols in Snow's book [vary slightly] from those in the schoolteacher's manuscript.

      In 1937, Hedden and his crew, at a depth of 114 feet, came across an intersecting tunnel measuring 3 feet and 10 inches wide by 6 feet and 4 inches tall. Remarkably this chamber was lined with hemlock timbers and may have served as one of the original tunnels. (See OakIslandMoneyPit.com about half way down.)

      3. TRANSLATION OF STONE'S characters

      The original "solution" used a letter substitution approach leading to a discredited translation saying "Ten Feet below are two million pounds buried."

      Your program, which I viewed on Dec. 2, 2014, suggested that the stone tablet might be a cypher code. Using a circular wheel, Daniel Roddstam claimed the tablet read, as nearly as I can recall: "At 80 guide corn long narrow sea inlet. F." Roddstam's theory was that the corn was to go through a vertical hole into the "flood tunnel" and then swell, blocking the sea water so that the "money pit" could be pumped dry and work at the pit could then proceed.

      That is not what the stone tablet says.

      Particularly interesting to me was the program I viewed on Nov. 18, 2014. It was suggested in that program that the stone may have contained a writing dating back to Carthaginian times, but there was no explanation for that suggestion, and no translation was offered.

      Now, there is a translation of that stone tablet by Dr. Barry Fell. His impressive credentials are set out by Norman Totten, History Department, Bentley College, Waltham, MA, as follows:

        "Barry is truly a remarkable man, talented and knowledgeable in many fields, He has edited several journals, written hundreds of articles, authored and co-authored numerous books.

        He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Royal Society of Arts, the Epigraphic Society, the Royal Society of New Zealand, the Explorer's Club, and the Scientific Exploration and Archaeological Society.

        Growing up in New Zealand, Barry studied Greek, Latin, German, French, and later Danish. He holds Ph.D. and D.Sc. degrees from the University of Edinburgh. He read Gaelic for two years with Mairi nic Asgail. He has acquired a working knowledge of Sanskrit, Egyptian hieroglyphics, Kufic Arabic, and ancient writing systems of Africa, Asia and America.

        Decipherment is a special form of linguistics and requires statistical talents and ways of thinking which few linguists possess. Barry has deciphered a half dozen ancient languages and many scripts--far more than any other person in History. . ." (Ref: "Saga America," Introduction, pages vii to viii.)

      Dr. Fell, in conjunction with his meeting Libyan scholars during his trip to Libya, determined that the stone tablet is in Libyan Arabic Script, in Arabic Language, which was the language of Coptic Christians, a numerous group of Christians in Egypt. (Ref: Dr. Fell, "Saga America," Introduction pages ix to xviii.)

      That stone tablet was deposited on Oak Island by early Coptic settlers. The translation is set out below.

      1. Stone Tablet Translation. The Libyan Arabic script in Arabic language did not use vowels. Immediately below each symbol is the English letter equivalent of the Libyan Arabic letter, and immediately below that is the English translation.

      The Libyan Arabic script in Arabic language is easily recognized and understood by one conversant with the language, The stone tablet found at the 90 foots level reads as follows:

          "To escape contagion of plague and winter hardships, he is to pray for an end or mitigation [to] the Arif: The people will parish in misery if they forget the Lord, alas."

          Reference: "Saga America" by Dr. Berry Fall at pg. 172. An "Arif" is "Presenter in charge of a small congregation lacking an ordained priest of the North African Coptic Church."

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      2. Rabat, Morocco, Steles. By way of confirming that the stone tablet, #1 above, contains an actual Libyan alphabet, No. 2 depicts that same Libyan Arabic Script, in Arabic Language, in text on 2 memorial steles of early Christians collected at Rabat, Morocco, by Professor Norman Totten.

      The Libyan Script does not use vowels in their alphabet.

      Each of the 2 column groupings to the left depict those 2 memorial steles. Each grouping has the Libyan script in one column, the corresponding English letters in the center, and the English translation in the remaining column.

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      Lest it be thought that the diagram is only a simple letter substitution code, we have a number of other actual examples of the Libyan Arabic script in Arabic language from Dr. Fell's "Saga America", pages 169 to 172. Those examples are Nos. 3, 4 and 5, below:

      For reader's convenience, we have set out below the full text of Nos 3, 4 and 5 which tell about a long westward ocean voyage from Libya to another land and return to Libya:

        "In the name of the hermitage of the fraternity now dispersed abroad and in the name of the Cross of the Divine Sacrament, by oath sworn to Christ the Lord, of the world emperor crowned Lord Jesus: The Testimony of an eye-witness who has returned home by ship that put in to Teth(wan) sea port; now in his homeland a second time, ended are the years of trouble; filled with compassion for the havoc wrought by the "Trouserd-Men" (i.e. Teutons) of that distinguishing characteristic.

        We were struck by total ruin in the shape of the Vandals, a contemptible race of no consequence. They destroyed by fire Oh how much: robbing property and stores an affliction as unbearable as the cutting edge of a sword The misery engulfed the whole world Followers of the True Faith as good as fled into exile, O Jesus grant them thy Peace!

        They decided to sail away to Asqa-Samal (North-Land) to seek a livelihood where the sun sets in the evening. The prepared suitable dried fruits to last a long time. They calibrated with numbers plaque (cross-staff, see Google) for measurements exact of the elevation of the sun.

        Sailed away from the coast the united company, trying to curb their appetite. Carefully they counted also how many times the sun rose and shone (i.e. days). Across the trackless wastes their Chief precisely directed the helmsman by secret calculations on the correct track. They journeyed on contented with their lot, far away to that land, inspired with zeal.

        They reached their destination and into the wilderness ventured The void of surging waves they had overcome by adhering to their plan. Pray for our friends, each one, Bless them O Jesus!"

      3. Figuig Oasis, East Morocco. This image also depicts, in Libyan Arabic Script in Arabic Language, text collected at Figuig Oasis in E. Morocco by Professor Norman Totten. As noted above, the Libyan Script does not use vowels in their alphabet.

      This the first part of 3 parts. It records the fleeing to find refuge, to what is likely North America, of Christian monks persecuted by the Vandals. The Vandals were a Germanic tribe, or group of tribes, who eventually established kingdoms in Spain and later North Africa in the 5th century. The decipherment was by Dr. Fell. Letters within the text (a), (b), (c) etc. are not part of the original text, they are placed by Dr. Fell to indicate where each new line of the text begins.

      All Libyan scholars would arrive at the same translation.

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      4. Cont. of #3, above, Figuig Oasis, East Morocco.

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      5. Cont. of #4, above. As noted above, Nos. 3, 4 and 5 are a continuous document received by Dr. Fell from James Whittall. It tells about early Christians being persecuted by Vandals and fleeing to find refuge in what is likely North America. In Dr. Fell's decipherment, letters within the text (a), (b), (c) etc. are not part of the original text and are placed by Dr. Fell to indicate where each new line of the text begins.

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    Is identifying the stone's language as North African Christians undermined by using the school teacher's depictions of the symbols on the stone rather than seeing the stone himself? No, for the following reasons:

      (1) What are the odds that the teacher, almost certainly not a speaker of the language, accidentally prepared North African Libyan Arabic text,

      (2) and accidentally used the alphabet symbols of North African Libyan Arabic script,

      (3) and accidentally used a North African Libyan Arabic language, easily recognized and understood by one conversant with that language?

    The odds for all 3 happening at the same time are roughly the same as a chimpanzee accidentally typing lines of the "Declaration of Independence" in Arabic.

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    4. PLACEMENT OF THE STONE TABLET

    As indicated above, the various theories about what lies below (pirate's treasure, etc.) are unsupported by any hard evidence.

    We do, however, have a piece of hard evidence that can help us in ascertaining what lies below. That hard evidence is the inscribed stone tablet which reads, per #1, above:

      "To escape contagion of plague and winter hardships, he is to pray for an end or mitigation the Arif: The people will parish in misery if they forget the Lord, alas."

    From that stone tablet, one can draw quite reasonable inferences as follows:

    1. It is in a North African language, in Libyan Arabic Libyan Arabic Script, easily recognized and understood by one conversant with the script and language.

    2. It was written well before 1795 when the boys first discovered the covered pit.

    3. It was either (1) carried to Oak Island, or (2) written on Oak Island, by one conversant with that script and language.

    4. It was buried by that person, or an associate.

    5. There was a reason, not yet known, to bury it rather than leave it above ground.

    6. There was a reason, not yet known, to bury it 90 feet deep.

    7. When the stone was discovered in excavating the pit, the inscription was lying face down, not face up (TMP-24).

    8. The face down placement indicates that it was to be symbolically embraced by persons, living or deceased, below the stone.

    9. The shaft was dry down to the 90 foot level when the stone was placed there.

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    5. THE HORIZONTAL TUNNEL

    Remarkably little is known about the horizontal tunnel leading from Smith Cove to the original vertical shaft. One indication was found in 1937 by Hedden and his team. At a depth of 114 feet in the vertical shaft, Hedden's team came across an intersecting horizontal tunnel measuring 6 feet and 4 inches tall and 3 feet and 10 inches wide. It was lined/shored up with hemlock timbers. It may have been connected to Smith Cove, but it was not explored to determine its source. (Harris and MacPhie, 2005. Oak Island and Its Lost Treasure. Halifax: Formac Pub.).

    Another intersecting tunnel was found at about 150 feet, but the originating source was not determined.

    "Occam's Razor," a kind of "Rule of Thumb," tells us that of possible competing explanations, the simplest should be preferred until it is proven wrong. Or, restated, the simplest answer is usually the correct answer. With that in mind, a number of reasonable conclusions can be drawn:

    1. How much shoring and bracing, and to what height and width, was done to the horizontal tunnel which probably led to Smith Cove from the vertical shaft? One can speculate as to a number of possibilities, but the one to be preferred, and simplest,until proven wrong, is that such shoring and bracing was likely similar to that observed in the 114 foot vertical shaft level.

    2. That horizon tunnel was not constructed underwater, it had to be dry at the time it was constructed.

    3. The Smith's Cove entrance to the tunnel was almost certainly dry when the the tunnel was constructed. Again, Occam's Razor tells us that the simplest or most obvious explanation of several competing ones is the one that should be preferred until it is proven wrong. The simplest answer is that the entrance was started above sea level.

    4. How far above the then sea level did they create the entrance to the tunnel? A reasonable digger would start at least 2 feet above sea level.

    5. Why did the horizontal tunnel flood? Again, the simplest answer is that the shaft flooded only later because of a rising sea level. In Nova Scotia, as a very conservative and rough rule of thumb, let's say the sea level has been rising about 30 cm, or 11.8 inches per 100 years. CLICK ON: NOVA SCOTIA SEA LEVEL RISE .

    6. It is probable that the Smith Cove tunnel entrance was underwater and not visible in 1795 since there is no known report of its visibility.

    7. How high would the sea level have to rise to submerge the heretofore dry entrance if the entrance was not visible in 1795? It would probably have to rise at least 24 inches to get to the base of the entrance, plus at least another 6 feet and 4 inches (76 inches) to submerge the entrance, for a total of 100 inches.

    8. For a rough calculation as to when construction of the tunnel began, we can do some rough calculations:

      1. If we assume the sea level rose 11.8 inches per 100 years, to reach 100 inches, it would take roughly 8.47 centuries, or roughly 850 years, so by that measure construction began roughly about 945 A.D. (1795 A.D. less 850 years).

      2. For a slower rising sea level of 8.7 inches per 100 years to rise 100 inches above the heretofore dry entrance, would take roughly 11.5 centuries, or 1,150 years. That would indicate the tunnel construction began roughly about 645 A.D. (1795 A.D.-1150)

      3. If we assume the sea rose more rapidly, say 10 inches per 100 years to reach 60 inches, it would take roughly 6 centuries, or 600 years, so construction began roughly about 1195 A.D. (1795-600).

    9. Those rough calculations clearly suggest the tunnel was constructed and the stone placed between 645 A.D. and 1195 A.D. Let us use the last date of 1195 A.D. and round the last date up to 1200 A.D.

    One can think of other ways that the horizontal tunnel from Smith Cove entrance may have been constructed, but, again, Occam's Razor tells us that the simplest or most obvious explanation of several competing ones is the one that should be preferred until it is proven wrong. And the simplest explanation is that, like virtually all miners, they made the entrance perhaps 2 feet above sea level and tunneled straight in.

    Additionally, since the sea level would take 100 years to rise a small 8 inches, it is unlikely that sea level flooding would have entered into the tunnelers consideration.

    Those dates are difficult for folks of our generation since our early school days have focused on Columbus' 1492 voyage and the 1620 Pilgrim landing in Massachusetts. But we now know that about 1004 A.D. the Vikings came to North America (See Smithsonian Mag.com ).

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    6. THE 5 FINGERED "VENT OPENINGS" AT SMITH'S COVE.

      Drain Field

      The Truro Company discovered vestiges of 5 fingered "Vent Openings" in Smith's Cove and determined that all 5 fingers converged at the single opening at the entrance to the horizontal tunnel.

      There is no information as to the diameter, length or direction of the fingers, nor how or when it was constructed. Since it obviously relates to the tunneling project, Occam's Razor tells us that the probable explanation is that the field was constructed at the time the tunnel was excavated and the field initially rested above sea level.

      To call it a "drain field" would be perplexing. The tunnel was obviously dry when it was constructed.and there was nothing to drain. If the "drains" were constructed after the tunnel was flooded, the level inside the tunnel would have been at sea level, so the sea water inside would not drain outside through those ground level fingers to that same sea level.

      If the tunnel was flooded by rising sea level, and if the fingers were constructed at the same time as the tunnel, then it would necessarily follow that the fingers were flooded at the same time.

      As to sea water entering the tunnel, no vent opening fingers were necessary if the flooding was due simply to rising sea level.

      There appears to have a tunnel entrance on Oak Island's south shore, but for now we know little about it, so our focus for now is the Smith's Cove entrance.

      Solar Calendar

      Many early cultures have often oriented their structures to the Summer or Winter Solstice. Even today, such orienting may occur in structures. Click on: Solstice Chamber, America B. C. which is a model of a sunrise temple observatory dedicated to Bel, located in South Royalton, Vermont. The front part is the observatory chamber where at Summer Solstice the shadow from the bottom of front edge of the roof corresponds with the inner back end of the the observatory chamber. The room at the back end of the structure is the main temple area, or "cella." (Ref: "America B. C." by Dr. Barry Fell, pg. 207.) For a modern example, Click on: Cathedral Solstice where the light traces a path from the front at the Summer Solstice in June to the rear of the church at Winter Solstice in December. The light column would then reverse and travels along the floor to the front in June.

      It is my understanding that the 5 fingers are no longer visible because about 1965 Robert Dunfield assumed control of operations at the island and used 2 bulldozers to clear 12 feet from the surface of the Money Pit and spread the removed clay over Smith's Cove as a way to clog any feeder tunnels that might be flooding the main chamber.

      I suggest that those 5 fingers represented a visual calendar. The outer fingers represent the Summer Solstice on June 21st and Winter Solstice on December 21st. The middle finger represented the sun's position on March 21st and September 21st. The 2nd and 4th fingers represent approximately 45 days between December to March, March to June, June to September, and September to December.

      Now, standing at the point at which those fingers converge, one can view the sun traveling from the right finger on Dec. 21st to the left finger on June 21st and then back again at about 45 day intervals. The viewing date selected for the viewing of the sun may vary a little depending on the significance of that date for the community. For example, one viewing point might be the date they arrived at Oak Island, and when the sun returns to that viewing point one year would have elapsed.

      That is analogous to the sun traveling along the cathedral floor shown in Cathedral Solstice where the light traces a path from the front at the Summer Solstice in June to the rear of the church at Winter Solstice in December. The light column would then reverses and travels along the floor to the front in June.

      Finally, those thoughts about the 5 fingers are conjectural, but they are consistent with the thoughts expressed above about the vertical shaft and tunnel.

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    7. CONCLUSIONS

    At some very early unknown date ships from Libya sailed to, arrived at "Asqa-Samal" with some people returning to Libya to tell about the trip. How many people were aboard? We do not know, but our linked article, #5" Cont. of Figuig Oasis, East Morocco, indicates an answer about the number of Libyans fleeing the Vandals:

      "Followers of the True Faith as good as fled into exile, O Jesus, grant them Peace! They decided to sail away to Asqu-Samal (North-Land) to seek a livelihood where the sun sets in the evening (i.e. West). They prepared suitable dried fruits to last a long time. They calibrated with numbers a plaque (Cross-staff?) for measurements exact of the elevation of the sun. Sailed away from the coast the united company, trying to curb their appetites.

      "Carefully they counted also how many times the sun rose and shown (i.e. days). Across the trackless wastes their Chief precisely directed the helmsman by his secret calculations on the correct track. They journeyed on contented with their lot, far away to that land, inspired with zeal. They reached their destination and into the wilderness ventured. . . "

    The foregoing language would indicate that it was a large group of people who sailed from Libya.

    Although their narrative for that trip identified "Asqa-Samal" as the Libyan's destination, it is impossible to know if that is the same place as Oak Island. Indeed, Oak Island would not even have had that name in that very early period.

    The importance of the narrative, whether or not that particular trip was to Oak Island, is that it tells of very early, long, ocean voyages westward ("where the sun sets in the evening") on a navigational heading for a given destination which they reached.

    We do know, from the Libyan stone tablet, that at least 1 Libyan ship reached Oak Island. From the extensive labor needed to dig and shore up the 525 foot long tunnel from Smith Cove and the 114 foot, or more, deep shaft, we can reasonably infer that it was a large group of Libyans.

    We can also reasonably infer that their ship(s) contained the coconut fiber found in the shaft and 5 fingers. In 1970, during an excavation attempt in Smith Cove, workers uncovered a U-shaped formation of logs marked with Roman numerals. The construction was thought to be the remnants of an ancient dam or harbor. Such a dam or harbor is consistent with ships arriving from Libya and requiring a harbor in which to moor their ships.

    After their arrival, the men dug a vertical shaft roughly 11 stories deep (at least 114 feet deep), and shored up an underground facility running about 525 feet to Smith's Cove and requiring the removal and disposal of hundreds of cubic yards of soil.

    Why? Some wishful thinkers say it was for the purpose of burying something of value, and then flooding the tunnel to make it extremely difficult to retrieve it at a later date. While that scenario is theoretically possible, it seems highly improbable. Retrieving anything buried would have been much easier with much shorter vertical and horizontal shafts, with the entrances concealed.

    And if they did not intend to retrieve it at a later date, a much simple solution would have been just to dump it overboard from a ship in mid-ocean.

    A more reasonable explanation for the deep shaft and 525 foot underground construction is that the Libyans had another use for it.

    Caves in hillsides have long been used for warmth and shelter, and would have been appropriate for those uses at the latitude of Oak Island.

    As in the case of any large group of people, some of the Libyans would have died of natural causes or otherwise after their arrival. A place would have been needed to inter their dead. For burials, passage graves/tombs have been used for hundreds of years in the European area. They can have a horizontal entrance into a specially constructed sizable round earth mound (see an Ireland example at Fourknocks Megalithic Passage Tomb), or could have a horizontal entrance into a hillside such as that at Oak Island.

    There is no reason why an excavated cave of sufficient size could not serve both purposes: living quarters and burial chambers. An earlier drilling down into the vertical shaft showed 6 inches of spruce, 3 small links of gold chain, loose metal and a small piece of parchment with a letter consistent with Libyan Arabic script. All are consistent with both living quarters and a burial chamber.

    If the the horizontal tunnel, and side chambers, served as living quarters, than the vertical shaft likely served as a ventilation shaft for the living quarters. When the Libyan settlers left, the shaft was sealed to keep out rain and snow.

    Since any intention to flood the underground facility was unlikely, after the Libyans left, the facility was flooded only as a result of the rising seawater level.

    The most logical use for the 5 fingers was as an annual solar calendar.

    Now, one is doubtless scratching one's head and saying, "Really, Libyans did all that on Oak Island?" But the key to the solution is the Stone Tablet in the Libyan language. No other explanation is consistent with the existence of the Libyan Stone Tablet.

    Please send me an email confirming receipt of this email so I don't think that you did not receive it and I may have to send it again.

    If you have any questions, please phone me at 916-791-0405.

    By: Linus Joseph Dewald Jr., J. D.
    Attorney at Law
    28 Dec 2015
    Dewald@Surewest.net

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